Top Natural Wonders in Iran 2024

Top Natural Wonders in Iran 2024

Let's dive into an extraordinary adventure that takes you beyond the typical tourist spots, offering a glimpse into Iran's untouched natural beauty. Whether ancient mosques and ruins have filled your itinerary or not, Iran's diverse and breathtaking landscapes await to elevate your travel experience. Here, we'll guide you through Iran's most captivating natural wonders.

Top Natural Wonders in Iran

Natural Wonders of Iran
1. Mount Damavand2. Dasht-e Lut (Lut Desert)3. Qeshm Island
4. Badab-e Surt5. The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests6. Lake Urmia
7. Kaluts of Shahdad8. Turkmen Sahra9. Maranjab Desert
10. Chahkooh Canyon11. Latun Waterfall12. Darak Beach
13. Hormuz Island14. Cloud Forest15. Ali Sadr Cave
16. Stars Valley17. Martian Mountains18. Masal Village

As you continue to read, we will provide detailed information on each of these natural wonders, their pictures, exploring their unique features, historical significance, and the best ways to experience their breathtaking beauty.

Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand is not just a mountain; it is a symbol of Iranian pride and natural splendor, standing as the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East, and the highest volcano in Asia. Rising majestically to an elevation of 5,610 meters (18,406 feet), its snow-capped summit dominates the landscape, visible from miles around, offering a stunning backdrop to the northern Iranian skyline. This majestic peak is part of the Alborz mountain range, and its volcanic nature adds to the intrigue and allure, drawing climbers and adventurers from around the globe.

In Persian mythology and literature, Mount Damavand holds a place of reverence and mystique. It is often associated with the legendary hero Fereydun, who, according to the "Shahnameh" (The Book of Kings), imprisoned the evil tyrant Zahhak within its depths, symbolizing the triumph of good over evil. The mountain is also mentioned in numerous poems and literary works, embodying the spirit of resilience and freedom that characterizes Persian culture.

For climbers and tourists eager to visit Mount Damavand, the journey is as rewarding as the destination itself. The climbing season typically runs from June to September, when the weather is most favorable. There are several routes to the summit, with the south route being the most popular due to its easier access and the presence of basic facilities like huts and campsites. Climbers should be prepared for a challenging ascent, as the high altitude and variable weather conditions can make the climb demanding. It's advisable to acclimatize properly to avoid altitude sickness and to hire a local guide who knows the mountain well.

Visitors should also take the opportunity to explore the surrounding areas, which are rich in hot springs, wildlife, and stunning landscapes. The hot springs, located at the base of the mountain, are said to have therapeutic properties and provide a perfect setting for relaxation after the climb.

Whether you're an avid mountaineer or a curious tourist, Mount Damavand promises an unforgettable adventure, offering breathtaking views, a touch of mythology, and a deep connection with nature. Remember to respect the natural environment, follow Leave No Trace principles, and contribute to the preservation of this magnificent natural wonder for future generations to enjoy.

Mount Damavand Iran Natural Wonders

Dasht-e Lut (Lut Desert)

The Dasht-e Lut, known simply as the Lut Desert, is a natural wonder that captures the stark beauty and extreme conditions of Iran's landscapes. Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2016, this distinction underscores the desert's global significance, both geologically and ecologically. Spanning an area of about 25,000 square kilometers (9,654 square miles), the Lut Desert stands as one of the most arid and hot spots on the planet, yet it holds an undeniable allure that beckons the intrepid explorer.

One of the desert's most fascinating features is the Gandom Beryan plateau, an area covered with black volcanic rocks. These rocks can get so hot under the blazing sun that they are reputed to be among the hottest surfaces on Earth, with satellite measurements recording surface temperatures exceeding 70°C (158°F). This extreme heat contributes to the desert's otherworldly ambiance, making it a site of scientific interest and a magnet for adventurous tourists.

Equally captivating are the Lut Desert's yardang formations. Carved by the relentless forces of wind erosion over thousands of years, these long, ridged formations create a landscape so surreal it seems more at home on Mars than on Earth. The yardangs vary in size and shape, some towering high and stretching for kilometers, forming natural corridors that wind through the desert. This intricate play of wind, sand, and heat has sculpted a landscape that is both desolate and beautiful, showcasing nature's artistry in the face of extreme conditions.

Beyond its daytime furnace, the Lut Desert transforms at night into one of the most spectacular night skies in the world. The absence of light pollution and the desert's clear, dry air make it an unparalleled destination for stargazing. The Milky Way stretches across the sky in a dazzling display, with countless stars twinkling in the vast expanse, offering a serene counterpoint to the day's extreme heat.

Visiting the Lut Desert is an experience unlike any other, offering not just a glimpse into the Earth's geological past but also an opportunity to witness the incredible adaptations of life and the natural world to extreme conditions. For those planning to explore this UNESCO World Heritage site, it's crucial to go prepare for the extremes, ideally with guided tours that respect the delicate desert ecosystem. The Lut Desert is a testament to the planet's diversity, beauty, and resilience, making it a must-visit for those seeking to uncover the mysteries of Iran's natural wonders.

Lut Desert Iran Natural Wonders

Qeshm Island

Qeshm Island, located in the Strait of Hormuz and part of the Persian Gulf, is not just Iran's largest island but also a remarkable showcase of natural diversity and beauty. The island is renowned for its Geopark, recognized by UNESCO, which spans an area that encompasses an array of geological wonders, historical sites, and cultural landscapes. This designation highlights Qeshm's global significance for its natural heritage, making it a fascinating destination for eco-tourists and nature enthusiasts.

The Geopark is home to several unique attractions, with the Valley of Stars being one of the most mesmerizing. Formed over millions of years, the valley's sharp, pillar-like formations are the result of erosion by wind and rain, creating a landscape that feels both alien and awe-inspiring. According to local folklore, the valley was created by a falling star, adding a layer of myth to its natural beauty. Another significant feature of Qeshm's natural landscape is its extensive mangrove forests, known locally as Hara forests. These tidal habitats are crucial for local biodiversity, acting as nurseries for many marine species and offering protection against coastal erosion.

Qeshm Island's biodiversity is particularly noteworthy, with its rich birdlife and diverse marine species drawing naturalists from around the world. The island serves as an important migratory bird habitat, hosting a variety of species throughout the year. Its surrounding waters are equally rich in life, including dolphins, turtles, and a myriad of fish species, making it an excellent spot for snorkeling and diving enthusiasts eager to explore the vibrant coral reefs and marine life.

Exploring Qeshm Island's natural beauty offers a unique opportunity to engage with the principles of sustainable tourism. Visitors are encouraged to respect the delicate balance of the island's ecosystems, minimizing their environmental impact and supporting conservation efforts. This includes adhering to guidelines when visiting sensitive areas, such as the mangrove forests and coral reefs, and choosing eco-friendly accommodations and tour operators that contribute to the preservation of the island's natural and cultural heritage.

For those planning a visit, the island is accessible by ferry from Bandar Abbas and offers a variety of experiences, from exploring ancient caves and geological formations to enjoying the rich cultural traditions of the island's inhabitants. Qeshm's combination of natural wonders, biodiversity, and cultural richness makes it a standout destination for travelers seeking to immerse themselves in one of Iran's most captivating landscapes, all while contributing to the ongoing efforts to preserve these invaluable natural resources for future generations.

Qeshm Island Natural Wonders of Iran

Badab-e Surt

Badab-e Surt presents one of Iran's most picturesque natural phenomena, a series of terraced springs that cascade down a mountain slope, creating a stunning visual spectacle that is both rare and beautiful. These terraces are formed by mineral water flowing from two main springs, depositing minerals over thousands of years to create natural pools with a range of vibrant colors, from deep orange to translucent turquoise. The minerals in the water, particularly iron oxide and calcium carbonate, are responsible for the vivid hues and the terraced structure of the springs, which resemble the famous travertine pools found in Pamukkale, Turkey.

The springs are located in the northern province of Mazandaran, near the village of Orost. Situated on the edge of the Alborz mountain range, the area is surrounded by lush forests and rolling hills, making it a scenic journey for those who venture to this secluded spot. The formation of Badab-e Surt's terraces is a natural process that has taken place over millennia, with each spring having its unique composition of minerals, contributing to the distinct coloration and therapeutic properties attributed to the waters.

For visitors aiming to capture the beauty of Badab-e Surt, the best times to visit are during the early spring or late autumn. During these seasons, the crowds are smaller, and the light is ideal for photography, especially during the golden hours of sunrise and sunset when the colors of the terraces are most vibrant. The contrast between the orange hues of the pools and the surrounding greenery offers a stunning tableau that photographers dream of capturing.

When planning a visit, it's important to consider the preservation of this natural wonder. Visitors are encouraged to follow designated paths, refrain from swimming in the terraced pools to prevent damage to the mineral deposits and carry all trash out with them. The journey to Badab-e Surt can be an adventure in itself, as the springs are located off the beaten path. Travelers are advised to wear appropriate footwear for hiking and bring sufficient water and supplies for the trip.

In addition to photography tips, those visiting Badab-e Surt should take time to enjoy the serene atmosphere of the area. The sound of gently flowing water and the sight of the terraced pools against the backdrop of Iran's diverse landscape make for an unforgettable experience that underscores the country's natural beauty. Badab-e Surt is not just a destination; it's a testament to the wonders of the natural world, offering a moment of reflection for those who seek out its tranquility.

Badab-e Surt Iran Natural Wonders

The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests

The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests are an ancient woodland that stretches along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, covering the northern provinces of Iran. This lush, dense forest range is one of the oldest living museums of plant life on Earth, dating back millions of years to the times of continental drift. The forests are a unique ecological haven, showcasing an extraordinary biodiversity that includes a wide range of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic and endangered.

The flora of the Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests is particularly remarkable for its diversity and the presence of relic species, which have survived the Ice Age and are now found nowhere else on Earth. The forests are dominated by broadleaf trees, including chestnuts, walnuts, and the ancient Persian ironwood tree, which is known for its resistance to decay. The undergrowth is rich with a variety of ferns, vines, and flowering plants, creating a vibrant tapestry of greenery that supports a complex ecosystem.

The fauna of the Hyrcanian forests is equally impressive, providing habitat to a wide array of species. It is home to the critically endangered Persian leopard, which roams the forested mountain slopes, as well as other mammals like brown bears, lynxes, wolves, and the unique Caspian red deer. The birdlife is abundant, with species such as the Caspian tit, woodpeckers, and eagles adding to the biodiversity. The forests also serve as critical migratory bird habitats, offering refuge to numerous species traveling between the cold northern climates and the warmer southern regions.

Conservation efforts in the Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests are vital to preserving this unique natural heritage. The area faces threats from deforestation, land conversion for agriculture, and urban expansion. Efforts to protect the forests include the establishment of national parks and protected areas, sustainable forestry practices, and research into the ecosystem's biodiversity and functioning. International cooperation and funding are also essential to the conservation strategies, aiming to balance ecological preservation with the needs of local communities.

Visitors to the Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests can contribute to the preservation of this natural heritage by following sustainable tourism practices. This includes staying on designated trails to prevent disturbing wildlife and plant life, supporting local conservation initiatives, and choosing eco-friendly accommodations and tour operators. By raising awareness about the importance of the forests and the need for conservation, tourists can play a role in ensuring the survival of this ancient ecosystem for future generations.

The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests offer a rare glimpse into the earth's ecological past, presenting an invaluable opportunity for scientific study, conservation, and responsible enjoyment of nature's bounty. Preserving this ancient woodland is crucial not only for the sake of its endemic and endangered species but also for the ecological balance and climate regulation it provides at a global level.

Hyrcanian Forests, Iran Natural Wonders

Lake Urmia

Lake Urmia, located in the northwest of Iran, holds the distinction of being one of the largest salt lakes in the world. Once the second-largest salt lake on the planet, it plays a crucial role in the regional ecosystem, supporting a unique biodiversity including several endemic species. The lake is also culturally and historically significant, with its surrounding areas being home to ancient sites and communities that have depended on its resources for millennia.

However, Lake Urmia has faced severe environmental challenges over the past few decades, primarily due to water diversion for agricultural irrigation, dam construction, and climate change, leading to dramatic shrinkage in size and increases in salinity. This has threatened not only the lake's ecological balance but also the livelihoods of people in the surrounding areas. The plight of Lake Urmia has garnered international attention, leading to concerted efforts by both Iranian authorities and international organizations to save the lake and reverse its decline.

Recent conservation successes have shown signs of improvement in the lake's condition, thanks to measures such as the reduction of water consumption in agriculture, the rerouting of water from nearby rivers, and efforts to raise public awareness about the lake's ecological importance. These initiatives have started to pay off, with satellite images and reports indicating a gradual increase in the lake's water level and a stabilization of its salinity levels.

For visitors wishing to witness the beauty of Lake Urmia, there are several tips to keep in mind. The lake is renowned for its strikingly beautiful colors, which can range from deep blues to rich greens and even reds, depending on the time of year and the concentration of minerals and algae in the water. The best times to visit are in the late spring and early autumn when the weather is mild, and the changing colors of the lake are most pronounced. The lake's vast salt flats, which become particularly prominent when the water levels are low, offer an otherworldly landscape that is especially captivating at sunrise and sunset.

Several viewpoints offer stunning vistas of Lake Urmia, including the Shahid Kalantari Bridge connecting the provinces of East and West Azerbaijan and the hills surrounding the lake. These locations provide panoramic views that are ideal for photography and simply soaking in the serene beauty of the area. Visitors are encouraged to respect the delicate ecosystem of the lake, adhering to local guidelines and supporting eco-friendly tourism initiatives that contribute to the ongoing conservation efforts.

Exploring Lake Urmia offers a unique opportunity to witness the challenges and successes of environmental conservation firsthand. It serves as a poignant reminder of the delicate balance between human activity and natural ecosystems, highlighting the importance of sustainable practices to ensure the preservation of such irreplaceable natural wonders for future generations.

Lake Urmia, Iran Natural Wonders

Kaluts of Shahdad

The Kaluts of Shahdad, located in the Lut Desert near the city of Kerman, are one of Iran's most extraordinary natural phenomena and a highlight of the country's diverse landscape. These yardang formations, known as kaluts, are the result of centuries of wind erosion sculpting the desert's sand and rock into towering structures that stretch across the horizon, creating an otherworldly landscape that seems more akin to the surface of Mars than Earth. The kaluts are among the largest of their kind in the world, offering a unique and mesmerizing sight that captivates visitors with its stark beauty and the sheer scale of natural sculpture.

The best times to visit the Kaluts of Shahdad for both cooler weather and optimal photography conditions are during the spring (March to May) and autumn (September to November) months. During these periods, the temperatures are more moderate compared to the extreme heat of the summer, making exploration more comfortable. Early morning and late afternoon are the ideal times for photography, as the low angle of the sun accentuates the textures and shapes of the Kaluts, casting long shadows and bathing the landscape in a warm, golden light that highlights its dramatic features.

Exploring the Kaluts and the wider Lut Desert region is best done through guided tours, which offer not only the safety of navigating this vast and challenging terrain with an experienced guide but also provide insights into the geological history and ecological significance of the area. These tours can range from day trips to more extended excursions, often including overnight stays that offer the unforgettable experience of camping under the stars in one of the darkest and most serene night skies on the planet.

Visitors are advised to prepare adequately for the desert environment, which includes bringing sufficient water, sun protection, and appropriate clothing to handle the fluctuating temperatures between day and night. It's also important to follow the principles of responsible tourism, ensuring minimal impact on the delicate desert ecosystem by staying on designated paths, removing all waste, and respecting the natural heritage of the area.

The Kaluts of Shahdad is not just a testament to the natural world's power to create beauty through the forces of erosion but also an invitation to witness the tranquility and vastness of the desert. They offer a unique adventure for those seeking to explore one of Iran's most spectacular landscapes, providing memories and photographs that will last a lifetime.

Kaluts of Shahdad, Iran Natural Wonders

Turkmen Sahra or Torkaman Sahra (Turkmen Plain)

Turkmen Sahra, located in northeastern Iran, particularly in Golestan province, is a culturally rich region known for its Turkmen population. This area is celebrated for its unique traditions, including intricate carpet weaving, traditional yurt dwellings, and a strong equestrian culture. The landscape is diverse, featuring semi-desert areas, fertile plains, and the backdrop of the Alborz mountains, contributing to its semi-arid climate. Turkmen Sahra is significant for its cultural heritage, with the Turkmen people maintaining a lifestyle deeply rooted in nomadic traditions and equestrian sports. The region offers unique opportunities for eco-tourism and cultural tourism, attracting visitors with its blend of natural beauty and vibrant culture. Despite facing challenges related to economic development and environmental sustainability, Turkmen Sahra remains a testament to the rich cultural mosaic of Iran, offering insights into the traditions and lifestyle of the Turkmen people.

Turkmen Sahra or Torkaman Sahra (Turkmen Plain)

Maranjab Desert

The Maranjab Desert, near Kashan, Iran, is renowned for its stunning landscapes, historical significance along the ancient Silk Road, and diverse ecosystem. Characterized by vast sand dunes, a captivating salt lake, and the historical Maranjab Caravanserai, it offers visitors a unique blend of adventure and history. Ideal for activities like off-roading, sandboarding, and stargazing, the best time to visit is from late autumn to early spring for comfortable weather. Visitors should prepare for the desert conditions by bringing adequate water, sun protection, and appropriate clothing. Emphasizing sustainable tourism, Maranjab is a must-visit for those seeking the tranquility and beauty of Iran's deserts, urging travelers to respect and preserve its natural and historical treasures.

Maranjab Desert, Iran Natural Wonders

Chahkooh Canyon

Chahkooh Canyon, on Qeshm Island, is a geological masterpiece within the UNESCO-listed Qeshm Island Geopark, famous for its dramatic erosion-formed landscapes. This canyon features towering walls, narrow passageways, and unique erosion patterns, making it a spectacle of natural architecture. Known as the "Mountain of Wells" for its historical water wells, Chahkooh offers an intriguing blend of natural beauty and cultural history. The best visiting period is from November to March, offering cooler temperatures for exploration. Visitors should come prepared with sturdy footwear, water, and sun protection, adhering to sustainable tourism practices to preserve this delicate ecosystem. Chahkooh Canyon is an essential visit for those captivated by the power of natural forces and the beauty they can create.

Chahkooh Canyon, Iran Natural Wonders

Latun Waterfall

Latun Waterfall, located in the lush landscapes of Gilan province in northern Iran, stands as one of the country's most spectacular natural attractions. As the highest waterfall in Iran, Latun cascades from a height of over 105 meters, creating a breathtaking spectacle amidst the `verdant forests of the Alborz mountain range. The waterfall is accessible through a scenic hike, offering visitors a refreshing escape into nature. Best visited from late spring to early autumn, when the flow is most robust due to melting snow, Latun Waterfall provides a perfect backdrop for nature lovers and photography enthusiasts. Visitors are encouraged to respect the natural environment, ensuring this majestic waterfall continues to enchant future generations.

Latun Waterfall, Iran Natural Wonders

Darak Beach

Darak Beach, uniquely situated where the desert meets the sea in the southeastern corner of Iran near the city of Chabahar, offers an extraordinary landscape rarely seen elsewhere. This beach is distinguished by its golden sands that stretch into the azure waters of the Oman Sea, creating a striking contrast with the nearby desert dunes. The juxtaposition of desert and sea at Darak Beach provides a mesmerizing visual experience, especially at sunset when the colors of the landscape blend in a spectacular display. Ideal for those seeking tranquility away from crowded tourist spots, Darak Beach is best visited during the cooler months from October to March. Visitors are encouraged to enjoy the serene beauty of the area while adhering to environmental guidelines to preserve its unique ecosystem.

Darak Beach, Natural Wonders in Iran

Hormuz Island

Hormuz Island, located in the Persian Gulf, is renowned for its stunning geological formations and vibrant natural color palette, ranging from reds and oranges to yellows and blues. This small yet fascinating island is characterized by its unique red soil, known as "Red Ocher," used in art and industry. Hormuz offers visitors an array of natural attractions, including the Rainbow Valley, red sand beaches, and the intriguing Valley of Statues. The island's cultural heritage, influenced by its strategic location and history, adds to its allure. Best visited during the cooler months from November to March, Hormuz Island is a haven for eco-tourists and those interested in geology and local culture. Visitors are encouraged to respect the delicate ecosystem and cultural norms, ensuring the preservation of this unique island's beauty and heritage.

Hormuz Island, Iran Natural Wonders

Cloud Forest

The Cloud Forest, located in the northern province of Gilan, Iran, is a mystical and lush landscape enveloped in fog and clouds for the majority of the year. This unique ecosystem, situated high in the Alborz mountain range, is characterized by its dense forests, rich biodiversity, and the continuous presence of cloud cover, creating a cool, moist environment that supports a wide variety of plant and animal species. The forest offers a serene and otherworldly experience, with its towering trees and moss-covered ground, providing a stark contrast to Iran's arid regions. Ideal for nature lovers and hikers seeking tranquility and a connection with nature, the best times to visit are spring and autumn when the forest's beauty is at its peak. Visitors are urged to respect the fragile environment, adhering to paths and leaving no trace to preserve the cloud forest's pristine condition.

Cloud Forest, Iran Natural Wonders

Alisadr Cave

Ali Sadr Cave, situated in Hamadan province, Iran, is one of the world's largest water-filled caves, offering visitors a unique and breathtaking subterranean experience. Known for its massive, beautifully lit chambers and crystal-clear waters, the cave can be explored by boat, allowing visitors to glide along its serene underground lakes and marvel at the stunning formations of stalactites and stalagmites. This natural marvel is a testament to centuries of geological processes and water's erosive power. Ideal for families and adventurers alike, Ali Sadr Cave is accessible year-round, providing a cool escape during the hot summer months. Visitors are encouraged to preserve the cave's natural beauty by following guidelines and minimizing their environmental impact during their visit.

Alisadr Cave, Iran Natural Wonders

Stars Valley

Stars Valley, located on Qeshm Island, is a natural geological wonder known for its surreal and otherworldly landscape. Formed over millions of years, erosion has sculpted the rock into unique formations, including columns, arches, and canyons, creating a scene that looks as though it's from another planet. Local legend suggests that a star once fell on this area, giving the valley its name and mystical aura. The valley is particularly enchanting at dusk or dawn when the play of light and shadow enhances its eerie beauty. Stars Valley is not only a highlight for geology enthusiasts but also for those interested in photography and nature walks. The best time to visit is during the cooler months from October to March. Visitors are reminded to respect the fragile environment to ensure it remains a pristine natural wonder for future generations.

stars valley, Iran Natural Wonders

Martian Mountains

The Martian Mountains, or "Mountains of Mars," located near Chabahar in southeastern Iran, offer a landscape so alien and unique that it feels like stepping onto another planet. These jagged, reddish formations, created by the erosion of sandstone and other sedimentary rocks, present a stark contrast against the blue skies above. The area's unearthly appearance has made it a popular destination for photographers, adventurers, and those fascinated by natural wonders. Visiting during the cooler months, from October to March, allows for the most comfortable exploration of this desolate yet beautiful terrain. The Martian Mountains provide a rare glimpse into the power of natural forces, shaping the Earth in ways that captivate the imagination. Visitors are encouraged to tread lightly, preserving the delicate ecosystem and otherworldly beauty of this unique landscape.

Stars Valley, Iran Natural Wonders

Masal Village

Masal village, nestled in the lush, green province of Gilan in northern Iran, is often referred to as a hidden paradise due to its stunning natural beauty and fog-enshrouded landscapes. This village, sitting atop the Alborz mountains, is surrounded by dense forests, rolling hills, and tea plantations, offering breathtaking views and a serene atmosphere. Masal is known for its traditional wooden houses, rich cultural heritage, and unique climate that provides a refreshing escape from the country's arid regions. The area comes alive with vibrant shades of green during the spring and summer months, making it an ideal destination for nature lovers, hikers, and those seeking tranquility. Visitors are encouraged to explore the surrounding natural beauty, experience the local lifestyle, and contribute to the preservation of Masal's pristine environment and cultural integrity.

Masal Village, Iran Natural Wonders

Last Word

exploring Iran's diverse and stunning natural wonders offers an unforgettable adventure into the heart of its breathtaking landscapes and rich cultural heritage. For those looking to fully immerse themselves in the beauty and serenity of these natural wonders, Saadatrent offers private tours tailored to your interests, ensuring a personalized and enriching experience of Iran's nature. Join us on this journey to discover the hidden gems of Iran, where every step is a story waiting to be told.

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